Drought in Ethiopia
PFEDA : drought in Ethiopia Dominique Bounie 29.04.2000
Famine in Ethiopia Bernt Lindtjørn 02.05.2000
Re: Famine in Ethiopia Dominique Bounie 16.05.2000
Drought in Ethiopia Dominique Bounie 16.05.2000
nutritional situation in the Horn of Africa Dominique Bounie 31.05.2000
Horn of Africa : relief items Dominique Bounie 28.06.2000
Horn of Africa : request for nutritional reports Dominique Bounie 28.08.2000
Re: Horn of Africa : request for nutritional reports Daniel Lemonnier 28.08.2000
Nutritional reporting in Emergencies : Horn of Africa Dominique Bounie 01.11.2000


Date: Sat, 29 Apr 2000 20:02:05 +0200 (MEST)

From: bounieatuniv-lille1.fr (Dominique Bounie)

Subject: PFEDA : drought in Ethiopia

 

Dear NGONUTs,

I have opened on PFEDA website (http://www.univ-lille1.fr/pfeda) a special page about the Ethiopian humanitarian crisis : "Ethiopia on-line".

Different services are available :

- an information page where you find different links to web ressources giving general information about the Horn of Africa (general background, maps :"General Information" page) + addresses where to get on-line news + periodical electronic bulletins concerning the on-going drought ("News on-line" page) ;

- a database where you can track the current needs (human and technical) of implementing organizations ("Needs" page) and the corresponding answers from donors ("Response" page). You may thus identify the present gaps and the supplementary efforts which need still to be supported ; - an Exchange of goods and services where we try to put field workers in direct touch with individuals, companies or organizations offering available skills or goods ("Offers" page)

- a page were implementing organizations can post their own field stories and reports ("Field news" page).

If the general framework of such a service is now available on PFEDA, we strongly need your collaboration to feed and share the corresponding field information : precise addresses of humanitarian implementing organizations + their local partnerships, detailed description of their field activities and current needs, proposals of available products and services, ...

The major ethiopian crisis requires a fast and effective response from every concerned person or organization. Internet may act as an unchallenged tool of reactivity and interactivity if, all together, we seize this opportunity.

wish to read you soon

Dominique

************************************************************

Dominique Bounie, Mr.
Batiment EUDIL-IAAL, Boulevard Langevin Campus Universitaire de l'USTL
59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex - France
Tel : (33) (0)3.28.76.74.11, Fax : (33) (0)3.28.76.74.01
Email :
dominique.bounieatuniv-lille1.fr, Internet URL : http://www.univ-lille1.fr/pfeda


Date: Tue, 02 May 2000 17:47:59 +0100

From: Bernt Lindtjørn <bernt.lindtjornatcih.uib.no>

Subject: Famine in Ethiopia

 

Dear NGONUTS,

Ethiopia is again in the news. Drought and famine affect large parts of the country. The available public information about the magnitude of the famine are few.

I have only seen a few reports of nutritional surveys. They are from the southern lowlands. The levels of malnutrition are highest in the eastern lowlands of the Borana. However, all areas surveyed show high rates of moderate and severe malnutrition (measured with W/H). The results are similar to those observed during the 1983 to 1986 famine. (See references (1-3); copies are available from me).

Does anyone have more detailed information about the situation on other parts of Ethiopia, particularly in the southeast and southwest?

Regards

 

Bernt Lindtjorn

 

Reference List

  1. Lindtjørn B. Famine in Ethiopia 1983-85: kwashiorkor and marasmus in four regions. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1987; 7:1-5.
  2. Lindtjørn B. Famine in southern Ethiopia 1985-86: Population structure, nutritional status and death among children. Brit Med J 1990; 301:1123-7.
  3. Kloos H, Lindtjørn B. Malnutrition and mortality during recent famines in Ethiopia: Implications for food aid and rehabilitation. Disasters 1994; 18:130-9.

 

Professor Bernt Lindtjørn
Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway.
Tel +47 5597 4975 Fax +47 5597 4979


Date: Tue, 16 May 2000 16:27:42 +0200

From: Dominique Bounie <pfedaatuniv-lille1.fr>

Subject: Re: Famine in Ethiopia

 

Dear Bernt,

I found (on Relief Web) and have received some (but few) nutritional reports on Ethiopia. They are posted on PFEDA under the "Ethiopia on-line : Field news" page. If you have not access to the web, I may email you a copy of them :

-Action Against Hunger, 10.04.2000 : ETHIOPIA Emergency Humanitarian Intervention - Ogaden Region’s Korahai Zone : Context and Implementation Plan

- Concern, 24.04.2000 : Concern nutrition survey reveals situation in Ethiopia far worse than previously thought

- MSF, 25.04.2000 : The food crisis in Ethiopia

- Save the Children, 28.04.2000 : Emergency update : Ethiopia April 2000

I read that other nutritional surveys were performed or were about to be implemented. But very few data are available, I mean in the "public domain". It seems that many organizations are still reluctant to diffuse such information. I have been explained that there were some "security", "confidentiality" and "prioritization" reasons. Well... I am still convinced that such data should be very valuable if shared and commented among the humanitarian relief community. Perhaps some of you may help to change this by acting on their own organization.

 

Dominique


Date: Tue, 16 May 2000 15:55:40 +0200

From: Dominique Bounie <pfedaatuniv-lille1.fr>

Subject: Drought in Ethiopia

 

Dear NGONUTs

Would it be possible that Ngonuts from NGOs operating in the Horn of Africa ask their organization to send us a copy (preferably by email) of the nutritional surveys which they made or are going to make in this region.

This is to post on the "Ethiopia on-line" page of our PFEDA website for further exchange among the humanitarian community.

Thank you,

Dominique

 

Dominique BOUNIE, Mr. : lecturer in Food Engineering IAAL (Institut Agro-Alimentaire de Lille - Lille Institute of Food Industries) Boulevard Langevin
Campus Universitaire de l'USTL (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille)
59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex - FRANCE
Tel : +33 (0)3 28 76 74 11, Fax : +33 (0)3 28 76 74 01
email : dominique.bounieatuniv-lille1.fr


Date: Wed, 31 May 2000 15:46:26 +0200 (MEST)

From: PFEDAatuniv-lille1.fr (Dominique Bounie)

Subject: nutritional situation in the Horn of Africa

 

Dear Ngonuts,

Eritrea-Ethiopia conflict's recent escalation and its massive flow of IDPs have reactivated a growing concern about the nutritional situation in the Horn of Africa, whose coverage by media somewhat stepped down following the heavy rains which fell in May.

Different reports (USAID humanitarian fact sheet, IRIN news brief, WFP emergency report, UNDP-EUE humanitarian update), quoting recent assessments from agencies or NGOs (UN inter-agencies mission, ICRC, MSF, Concern, ...), draw an alarming presentation of the nutritional situation in the Horn (Eritrea and Sudan, Southern Ethiopia, Northern Kenya).

I have offered to post such full reports on PFEDA website as I thought that they might be of the upmost interest for both the humanitarian community and the public audience, in raising awareness and concern, improving global reactivity and field efficiency, initiating useful discussions between practitioners - through NGONUT, for exemple -.

Up to now, very few organisations have positively answered to such a request.

Again, I come to NGONUT to ask those in contact with any of the implementing organizations to press them to share such valuable material.

Thank you in advance,

Dominique

 

Dominique BOUNIE, Mr. : lecturer in Food Engineering IAAL (Institut Agro-Alimentaire de Lille - Lille Institute of Food Industries) Boulevard Langevin
Campus Universitaire de l'USTL (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille)
59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex - FRANCE
Tel : +33 (0)3 28 76 74 11, Fax : +33 (0)3 28 76 74 01
email : dominique.bounieatuniv-lille1.fr


Date: Wed, 28 Jun 2000 08:44:16 +0200 (

From: PFEDAatuniv-lille1.fr (Dominique Bounie)

Subject: Horn of Africa : relief items

 

Dear Ngonuts,

We have a request from organizations operating in Eritrea to help them identifying possible sources for procurement of relief items + description of the corresponding offers. I have suggested to add such a list on our PFEDA's pages about the on-going crisis in the Horn (www.univ-lille1.fr/pfeda/Ethiop/Ethiop_e.htm) with, when available, a description of the relief items as transmitted to us by the proposing companies. We have already posted such proposals (only 3 !) on PFEDA, see : www.univ-lille1.fr/pfeda/Ethiop/Offers_e.htm and are looking after more contacts and detailed information.

Some Ngonuts belong to implementing organizations operating in the Horn.

Could they please ask their procurement services to send us such information so we may forward them to our Eritrean correspondent.

I also take the opportunity to inform those Ngonuts interested about the on-going crisis in the Horn that we have posted on PFEDA an extensive amount of information about it. Of special interest are the field reports which are now on-line on the "Field News" page (see : www.univ-lille1.fr/pfeda/Ethiop/Field_e.htm) with, for exemple, 10 detailed nutritional surveys or assessments (see my previous appeal on NGONUT). These reports could be usefully discussed on NGONUT.

On the same page, I also recommend to look at the "ICC weekly updates" about Eritrea as they give unique information about the current situation.

Please help us collecting and sharing such valuable materials,

Dominique

 

Dominique BOUNIE, Mr. : lecturer in Food Engineering IAAL (Institut Agro-Alimentaire de Lille - Lille Institute of Food Industries) Boulevard Langevin
Campus Universitaire de l'USTL (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille)
59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex - FRANCE
Tel : +33 (0)3 28 76 74 11, Fax : +33 (0)3 28 76 74 01
email :
dominique.bounieatuniv-lille1.fr


Date: Thu, 28 Sep 2000 10:08:29 +0200

From: PFEDA <pfedaatuniv-lille1.fr>

Subject: Horn of Africa : request for nutritional reports

 

Dear Ngonuts,

This is a call to ngonuts who are working with NGOs (or Intl. agencies) operating in the Horn of Africa.

As you know, PFEDA has offered to collect and post on its website (www.univ-lille1.fr/pfeda/Ethiop/Ethiop_e.htm) field reports giving updated data and information on the situation prevailing in the Horn (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan). We think that such materials are of the upmost interest to any field practitionist and also to public audience in : sharing experiences and methodolgies, providing necessary data for further implementation of field interventions, improving global reactivity and field efficiency, raising awareness and concern about the on-going crisis.

You will find below a list of the different reports which are now on-line on PFEDA (www.univ-lille1.fr/pfeda/Ethiop/Field_e.htm). For those who don't have access to Internet, I may email them a copy of one or more reports, preferably as pdf attached file (readable with the Adobe Acrobat free viewer).

Following my previous calls through Ngonut, I invite you again to feed PFEDA with such reports, as most of them are not easily available from your organizations.

In particular, I am looking after the following recent studies :

Again, I invite them to share (on PFEDA) such usefull reports with any interested nutritionist.

With many thanks,

Dominique

nutritional reports available on PFEDA :

A database giving the updated results from Ethiopia nutritional surveys (1999-2000) has been developped by UNICEF/WHO and is available on the UNDP/EUE website

(http://www.telecom.net.et/~undp-eue/reports/Nutrition_Survey.doc)

Dominique

 

Dominique BOUNIE, Mr. : lecturer in Food Engineering IAAL (Institut Agro-Alimentaire de Lille - Lille Institute of Food Industries) Boulevard Langevin
Campus Universitaire de l'USTL (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille)
59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex - FRANCE
Tel : +33 (0)3 28 76 74 11, Fax : +33 (0)3 28 76 74 01
email :
dominique.bounieatuniv-lille1.fr


Date: Thu, 28 Sep 2000 21:09:45 +0100

From: Daniel Lemonnier <Daniel.roses.normatwanadoo.fr>

Subject: Re: Horn of Africa : request for nutritional reports

 

I have done a report for WHO Alexandria (Dr Anna Werster) concerning the nutritional situation in Djibouti, may be 4 years ago. But I don't know if it is available

Daniel Lemonnier


Date: Wed, 1 Nov 2000 18:22:48 +0100 (MET)

From: PFEDAatuniv-lille1.fr (Dominique Bounie)

Subject: Nutritional reporting in Emergencies : Horn of Africa

 

Dear Ngonuts,

WHO has recently published 2 important nutritional reports concerning the Horn of Africa. These reports raise important questions about quality of nutritional reporting, information collection, analysis and diffusion. These reports could initiate an interesting discussion on this matter through NGONUT.

For those having not access to Internet, I may email them an electronic copy of these reports

1. WHO/UNICEF Report on the Food and Nutrition Situation in Gode, Fik, Korahe, Jijiga and Shinile zones of the Somali Region, Ethiopia, August 11, 2000 available at : http://www.univ-lille1.fr/pfeda/Ethiop/Docs/0822unicef.htm
2. WHO/EHA Emergency Consultancy in the Horn of Africa, 3 June - 3 October 2000, available at :
http://wwww.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/480fa8736b88bbc3c12564f6004c8ad5/7ede2e2 c619b029fc125698400411d73?OpenDocument

Extracts

Background

(...)

Since the beginning of the year, the general food ration (GFR) actually received by beneficiaries has been unreliable in quantity and quality in most zones with the exception of those areas targeted for complimentary rations by major international organizations since April, 2000. This inconsistency has led to persistently high levels of acute wasting. Lack of confidence in the GFR has also led some organisations to establish blanket supplementary feeding programmes with ration size well above the level recommended by DPPC.

(...)

Summary Problem Analysis

The overall problems with the humanitarian response in Somali region relate to the lack of a comprehensive surveillance system, the lack of a suitable coordination mechanism and therefore the lack of an integrated response. The DPPC/B whose mandate is to co-ordinate the response lacks sufficient technical capacity in nutrition and food security monitoring at all levels, the human resources necessary and logistic capacity to fulfill this role.

The UN agencies have their regular programmes and have provided some strategic co-ordination in support of the DPPC. As yet these mechanisms have not been effective in standardising nutrition surveys or selective feeding programmes or in effectively identifying areas requiring immediate response and ensuring a timely intervention. This has resulted in assessments and surveys of a relatively ad hoc nature that regularly do not produce useful information or meet minimum standards. Of concern is that surveys using non-representative sampling methods that may result in significant bias are being used as the basis for advocacy. This may result in a misuse of limited resources.

While some therapeutic and supplementary feeding programmes are of excellent quality, many also do not meet minimum standards. This may result in a misuse of limited resources. Lack of 24-hour care, high default rates, relatively poor education of mothers and the exclusion of malnourished older children, adolescents and adults are of particular concern. These problems were seen mainly in centres run by NGOs without significant experience in selective feeding. The fact that the quality of these programmes remains poor reflects the overall lack of nutrition co-ordination and monitoring.

For a variety of reasons including high default rates and a long recovery period, beneficiary figures from therapeutic feeding centres are not suitable for monitoring trends in severe malnutrition. Figures from supplementary feeding are of even less use in reflecting moderate malnutrition because agencies use different admission criteria, target different groups (and/or change target groups), while beneficiaries may be double registered within one programme or registered in two different programmes.

The lack of a comprehensive nutrition surveillance system has resulted in a failure in targeting of food aid to the most vulnerable geographic areas and adjusting priorities according to needs. It has allowed some areas such as Gode to attract a relative surplus of food items, selective feeding programs and support in the health sector, while others areas such as Shinile and Jijiga zones remain with grossly inadequate assistance in these sectors and an ongoing nutritional emergency. Even within Gode district, it has allowed some communities in the district to receive relatively little food while resident populations in urban areas are likely to have received a surplus.

Finally, a major problem in assessing the food situation is the absence of accurate statistics on populations (including displaced) and food distributions. DPPC/B and WFP co-ordination and information sharing in the food sector has so far not succeeded in providing precise figures on quantities of food distributed, let alone whether all eligible beneficiaries were included and how much food people actually received. Official figures suggest that from (the end of) May onwards, most zones have received sufficient food to rapidly reverse famine conditions. Further analysis of the reason why the overall situation seems to have only marginally and/or slowly improved, is needed before any decision is taken to continue and/or increase humanitarian food assistance.

Recommendations (among other listed in the report) :

(...)

. Through the nutrition task force strengthen response by the: Compilation into a data-base of information on surveys and interventions dissemination of guidelines on best practices and minimum standards provision of technical assistance upon request . Strengthen the nutrition surveillance system in the short term by requesting implementing partners to do 3 monthly nutrition surveys following standard methods that include the analysis of underlying factors such as morbidity, care and food security

. Encourage the reporting by implementing partners of standardised summary indicators so that programmes can be monitored and technical support given when needed

. Develop efficient and effective mechanisms to monitor population movements and adjust beneficiary case-loads and general food rations according to needs . Strengthen food tracking and food distribution monitoring at all levels . Initiate comprehensive food basket monitoring system at site of distribution as well as at the household level . Improve the flow of information by ensuring standardised, regular and timely reports integrating information from all relevant actors . Strengthen the nutrition surveillance system of the early warning department of the DPPC and morbidity surveillance at the Ministry of Health by training and mobilising staff at central and regional levels and integrate these two surveillance systems . Improve the monitoring role of DPPC in selective feeding interventions.

This will require the support of the ministry of health at central, regional and zonal level and significant training at these levels by WHO/EHNRI Extend EWS to cover the entire country . Use the information gathered to target geographical areas and (if necessary/feasible) vulnerable groups within these areas for assistance in the food and health sectors. The latter may include age groups other than children less than 5 years such as elderly persons living alone.

. Through the strengthened surveillance mechanisms improve:

a. targeting of food aid by identifying areas requiring immediate response, identifying an implementing partner and if possible a funding mechanism

b. targeting of assistance in the health and water and sanitation sectors if problems in these sectors have been identified as (important) underlying causes of malnutrition such as measles and diarrhoeal disease.

(...)

 

Your reactions and feedback are welcomed,

DominiqueDominique BOUNIE, Mr., lecturer in Food Engineering
IAAL (Institut Agro-Alimentaire de Lille)
Batiment EUDIL-IAAL, Boulevard Langevin
Campus Universitaire de l'USTL
59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex - France
Tel : (33) (0)3.28.76.74.11, Fax : (33) (0)3.28.76.74.01
Email PFEDA :
pfedaatuniv-lille1.fr (Personal Email : dominique.bounieatuniv-lille1.fr)