High protein biscuits    
High protein biscuits Anne Ralte 03.02.98
BP5 Michael Golden 03.02.98
Fortificant levels in fortified biscuits Joan Hildebrand 15.02.98
Fortificant levels in fortified biscuits - More questions.... Irela Mazar 16.02.98
new subscription request, and request for discussion Penny Nestel 02.03.98
Acceptability and use of cereal-based foods in refugee camps, case-studies from Nepal, Ethiopia and Tanzania Catherine Mears and Helen Young  
Comparaison of biscuits - Comparison of nutritional composition Helen Young  


Date: Tue, 3 Feb 1998 13:24:44 -0800

from Anne Ralt

Subject : high protein biscuits

 

Dear Mike,

Please see my initial enquiry to Jane Wallace regarding experience with

high protein biscuits. Kindly let me know if you have this information and

how I might access it?

I work with USAID's Office of Food for Peace (Emergencies) providing

technical support in monitoring and evaluation, and issues related to

nutrition and health. I would appreciate it very much if you could include

me in your mailing list. My email is ralteaatearthlink.net.

Thanks very much. Yours sincerely,

 

Anne Ralte

------------------------

> Subject: High protein biscuits

> Author: "anne ralte" <ralteaatearthlink.net> at inet

> Date: 02.2.98 13,31

>

> Dear Jane,

> Greetings. I am contacting you to find out information about high

> protein

> biscuits, in particular BP-5. Food for Peace has received a new product

> Mainstay 3600 Food-Aid Biscuits, similar to BP-5, produced by Survival

> Industries, a U.S. company. We would like to compare the two products in

 

> terms of a comprehensive profile including nutrient value and cost. We

> are interested in finding out what the past experience has been with BP-5,

> e.g., in what situations has it been most useful, what is its acceptability by

> end-users, what are its limitations to its use, has it proven to be

> nutritionally beneficially, etc. Do you know of any guideline/criteria for

> its use? Any idea of its current cost?

> If you know of anyone who might have some direct hands-on experience with

> this, this would be most helpful. I am also doing a literature search on

> this, but knowing that most best practices and experiences are not

> published, I thought it might be best to contact program implementers

> directly. I am also contacting UNHCR, WHO and WFP.

> Any information will be most appreciated. Thanks & regards. Anne

------------------------

> From: wallacejatwho.ch

> To: wallacejatwho.ch; anne ralte <ralteaatearthlink.net>

> Subject: Re: High protein biscuits

> Date: Monday, February 02, 1998 12:31 AM

>

> The best way to tap into the collective memory would most likey be

> NGONUT. This electronic discussion group involves a lot of people

with

> practical, hands-on experience. I'm sure you will get the info you

> need that way. The person who runs the list is Mike Golden - his

> contact details are below. Good luck!!

>

> Jane


Date: Tue, 03 Feb 1998 11:12:12 +0000

From: Michael Golden <refugeesatabdn.ac.uk>

Subject: Ngonut: BP5

 

The following message has been forwarded from Anne Ralte, who works with USAID.

I'm sure that many of us have (lively) comments to make on the role of specific products, including BP5 - certainly at field level this is a common topic of conversation (smile) - and I would encourage discussion of the merits and de-merits of different products by those that actually use them. There is little in the scientific literature and we get much of our "information" from manufacturer's advertisements and NGO word-of mouth folk-lore. Those who manufacture, purchase and use these products are all on the list.

It also raises the topic of the protein requirement in emergency situations, and the need for "high-protein" foods at all - another hot topic.

Those interested in this may care to read "M.H.Golden. Protein-energy interactions in the management of severe malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition, 16 (supplement 1), 19-23, March 1997", where this question is addressed for severe malnutrition. I have a limited supply of reprints for those in library-poor situations. Another underlying-topic is "what should be the composition of such products" - this is an enormous question - which is NOT based upon research into the nutritional requirements of such populations, but largely extrapolated from experiments with young health volunteers in western societies (no infections, no parasites, no stunting etc).

 

> Subject: High protein biscuits

> Author: "anne ralte" <ralteaatearthlink.net> at inet

> Date: 02.2.98 13,31

>

> Dear Jane,

> Greetings. I am contacting you to find out information about high protein

> biscuits, in particular BP-5. Food for Peace has received a new product

> Mainstay 3600 Food-Aid Biscuits, similar to BP-5, produced by Survival

> Industries, a U.S. company. We would like to compare the two products in

> terms of a comprehensive profile including nutrient value and cost. We are

> interested in finding out what the past experience has been with BP-5, e.g.,

> in what situations has it been most useful, what is its acceptability by

> end-users, what are its limitations to its use, has it proven to be

> nutritionally beneficially, etc. Do you know of any guideline/criteria for

> its use? Any idea of its current cost?

> If you know of anyone who might have some direct hands-on experience with

> this, this would be most helpful. I am also doing a literature search on

> this, but knowing that most best practices and experiences are not

> published, I thought it might be best to contact program implementers

> directly. I am also contacting UNHCR, WHO and WFP.

> Any information will be most appreciated. Thanks & regards. Anne


Date: Sun, 15 Feb 1998 11:40:34 +0000

From: Joan Hildebrand

Subject: Ngonut: Fortificant levels in fortified biscuits

 

Greetings - a couple of questions regarding fortificant levels in fortified biscuits:

1. Are you aware of any international recommendations that exist for fortificant levels in fortified biscuits?

2. If no recommendations exist, what levels would you suggest? For example, would levels reflecting the daily RNI for the target population be appropriate? We are currently investigating the production of fortified biscuits targetted to children as part of supplementary feeding programmes.

3. How would you modify fortificant levels for different target groups? For example, if the biscuits were needed for broader distribution which included pregnant women, what would you suggest?

Providing the same biscuit targetted for children, with the knowledge that the lower nutrient density may not meet their daily needs? Or should the levels of certain nutrients (such as iron) be increased to reflected the increased needs of pregnant women?

Thanks in advance for your input regarding the above...

Joan Hildebrand, MSc, R.D.

Nutrition Officer 6630 Turner Valley Road Micronutrient and Health Programme Mississauga, Ontario L5N 2S4

International Food Resources Department (905) 821-3033 X781 World Vision Canada FAX (905) 821-1825


From: Mazar, Irela (ESNA)

Subject: Ngonut. Fortificant levels in fortified biscuits

Date: 16 February 1998 4:53PM

 

I've discussed this subject with an ESNS colleague(Tony Whitehead), and a summary of his reply follows:

"Ms. Hildebrand's questions are very broad and non-specific, and it is difficult at this stage to respond.

>From her message, it is not clear whether she is dealing with a population in a specific country with specific problems, what fortificants she is referring to, if she is dealing with deficiencies or if she wants to provide a preventative approach, what is the formula (recipe) for the biscuits, whether the biscuits are already fortified (perhaps through their ingredients, such as enriched flours)?

The target audience is a real problem without much more information, since you can over fortify or create significant health problems for pregnant women by not knowing what you are doing. Have there been any dietary intake studies, why is there a need to fortify, and with what?

It's important for the fortificants to be stable and suitable for the media (biscuit), so some fortificants can be used in biscuits while others can't.

If Ms. Hildebrand is in Canada, she should be able to get information and advice from Health Canada or Agriculture Canada, as both institutions have nutritionists who would be able to help her. I would however be happy to provide her with more specific information if she clarifies further her areas of interest."


Date: Mon, 2 Mar 1998 12:11:40 -0500

From: Penny Nestel <penny_nestelatjsi.com>

Subject: Ngonut: new subscription request, and request for discussion

-Reply

 

I am interested to join this discussion. By way of a little background

information, I work on USAID's micronutrient project (OMNI). One of the

areas that we work in is food fortfication, specifically sugar with vitamin

A and wheat flour with Fe/folate/B vits. We are also supporting efficacy

trials on Fe/Zn/vit A encapsulated sprinkles that can be added to food.

 

Penny


EXTRACTS FROM: ACCEPTABILITY AND USE OF CEREAL-BASED FOODS IN REFUGEE CAMPS, CASE-STUDIES FROM NEPAL, ETHIOPIA AND TANZANIA. BY CATHERINE MEARS, WITH HELEN YOUNG. AN OXFAM WORKING PAPER, OXFAM, OXFORD. (1998) CONTACT Oxfam, c/o Humanities Press, 165 First Avenue, Atlantic Highlands NJ 07715-1289, USA (tel 908 872 1441 Fax 908 872 0717)

 

Blended foods are a mixture of cereals and other ingredients, including, for example:

Blended food should be produced in accordance with the ‘Code of Hygienic Practice for Foods for Infants and Children’ and ‘Code of Sound Manufacturing Practices’ of the Codex Alimentarius.

There are a number of processes for the commercial production of blended foods, including for example;

The final product is usually milled into powder form, and fortified with a vitamin mineral premix.

A range of ‘blended’ foods are available worldwide for a variety of purposes. Some blended foods were originally designed to provide protein supplements for weaning infants and younger children or for low-cost weaning foods in developing countries. Guidelines on Formulated Supplementary

Foods for Older Infants and Young Children have been developed by the FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission (1991). These guidelines refer to blended foods suitable for use for infants from six months of age up to the age of three years, for feeding young children as a supplement to breastmilk or breastmilk substitutes. They are intended to provide those nutrients, which either are lacking or are present in insufficient quantities in the basic staple foods.

Several locally produced blended foods have been developed for the commercial market, and only later used or adapted for emergency relief (e.g. likuni phala, faffa)

Some of these products are now used in the general ration for adults and children as a means of providing an additional source of micronutrients. Studies among refugees in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Nepal, have shown that blended foods are acceptable and eaten by everybody. Even though the blended food that was distributed was not itself familiar, it was easily recognizable as porridge and could be prepared easily into an already familiar dish.

Blended foods have also been designed for use in nutritional rehabilitation programmes. These products are more expensive than regular blended foods, partly because of their higher quality ingredients and higher specification packaging. They also contain a wider range of micronutrients suitable for the needs of malnourished children.

 

Nutritional quality

Blended foods tend to provide significantly higher levels and better quality protein than cereals (FAO recommend in the order of 15g protein per 100g blended food), together with increased levels of micronutrients and sometimes additional fat. The precise nutritional composition of blended food depends on the particular product (see Annex x).

FAO recommend the final level of fat in the porridge or drink prepared from blended food, should provide between 20 and 40% of energy, which corresponds to between 10g and 25g of fat or oil in 100g food. This amount is rarely included in processed blended food, so instructions for use on the label must recommend the addition of a specified quantity of oil or fats during the preparation of the food.

Extruded and roasted blended foods are ‘pre-cooked’ and therefore require minimal cooking, which preserves levels of micronutrients. Some pre-cooking is essential to ensure micro-organisms present in the cooking water are killed.

Blended foods are very expensive compared with whole grain cereals.

Previously, most blended foods for emergency use originated in the USA. Corn soy blend (CSB) and wheat soy blend (WSB) are provided to WFP by the United States. They are fortified with vitamin and mineral premixes containing eleven vitamins (A,B-12, C, D, E, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin, and thiamin) and six minerals (calcium, iodine, iron, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc).

With the inclusion of blended foods in the general rations, WFP are increasingly using locally produced blended foods, for example, ‘faffa’ in Ethiopia, ‘likuni phala’ in Malawi, and ‘Unilito’ in Nepal. Specifications for these products are shown in Annex .

Blended foods must be packaged in plastic lined bags to prevent them from absorbing moisture from the atmosphere. The handling of blended foods requires special care, in order to maintain the integrity of the package. Once the packaging is damaged and the product becomes wet or soiled the contents must usually be rejected.

Storage at high temperatures over long periods can reduce the nutritive value, especially the added heat labile vitamins. Flavour and colour may also be affected.

 

EXAMPLES:

 

FORTIFIED PRE-COOKED BLENDED FOODS AVAILABLE IN FIELD STUDY SITES

 

UNILITO

WSB (ex-USA)

FAMIX

TENAMIX

CSB (ex-USA)

MANUFACURER

Mahalaxmi Foods Biratnagar

Protein Grain Products International

Faffa factory, Addis Ababa

HCFM Addis Ababa

Protein Grain Products International

INGREDIENTS

wheat pre-cooked

maize pre-cooked

soya pre-cooked

vit/min premix

wheat pre-cooked

soya flour

salad oil

vit/min premix

maize pre-cooked

soya flour full fat

sugar

vit/min premix

maize pre-cooked

soya pre-cooked

chickpea pre-cooked

sugar

vit/min premix

maize (processed, gelatinized)

soya flour (defatted,toasted)

soya oil

vit/min premix

PROCESS

roastiing

extrusion

roasting

roasting

extrusion

FOOD VALUES

per 100gm dry product

400 Kcal

14 gm protein

6 gm fat

360 Kcal

20 gm protein

6 gm fat

60 gm carbohydrate

402 Kcal

14.7 gm protein

7 gm fat

70.1gm carbohydrate

380 Kcal

13.3 gm protein

7.4 gm fat

65 gm carbbohydrate

380 Kcal

18 gm protein

6 gm fat

60 gm carbohydrate

COST EX-FACTORY

? 350 USD

390 USD

c. 450 USD

c. 450 USD

3202

PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS

None

 

Famix:water

2:5

5 -10 minutes boiling

Tenamix:water

2:5

2 teaspoon oil

Cook for 10 minutes

 

 

MICRONUTRIENT SPECIFICATIONS (per 100gm. dry finished product)

!  

5.0 mg

(as zinc sulphate)

 

WFP Rome recommendations

Unilito

WSB ex-USA

Famix

Tenamix

CSB ex-USA

Vit. A

1,664.0 i.u.

400.0 microgram

1,658 i.u.

1,300.0 i.u.

1,500.0 i.u.

1,700 i.u.

Vit. B1(thiamine)

0.128 mg

0.1 mg

1.49 mg

0.1 mg

0.3 mg

0.7 mg

Vit. B2(riboflavin)

0.448 mg

1.0 mg

0.59 mg

0.4 mg

0.5 mg

0.5 mg

Vit. B3(niacin)

4.8 mg

5.0 mg

9.1 mg

5.0 mg

-

8.0 mg

Folate

60.00 microgram

50.00 microgram

 

50.00

0.06 mg

 

Vit. C

48.0 mg

50.0 mg

40.0 mg

30.0 mg

20.0 mg

40.0 mg

Vit. B12

1.2 microgram

5.0 microgram

4.0 microgram

1.0 microgram

0.3 microgram

4.0 microgram

Iron

8.0 mg

(as ferrous fumarate)

15.0 mg

20.8 mg

8.0 mg

12.0 mg

18 mg

Calcium

100.0 mg

(as calcium carbonate)

100.0 mg

749.0 mg (? not as calcium carbonate)

100.0 mg

200.0 mg

800.0 mg (? not as calcium carbonate)

Zinc

5.0 mg

4.6 mg

5.0 mg

10.0 mg

3.0 mg

Vit. B6

-

-

0.52 mg

-

0.4 mg

0.7 mg

Iodine

-

-

50 microgram

-

0.05 mg

50 microgram

Magnesium

-

-

202 mg

-

20.0 mg

100 mg

Selenium

-

-

-

-

25.0 mg

-

Potassium

-

-

624 mg

-

164.0 mg

700 mg


COMPARISON OF BISCUITS - January, 1997

COMPARISON OF BISCUITS - January, 1997

           
 

Packaging

Total No

Wt per biscuit

Gross Wt

Net Wt

Date of quote

Total Cost Per Mt

 

Shelf-life

             

(NOK)

(STG)

 

BP-5

84 cartons of 24 each

2016

1008

1,143

1,008

21/11/96

23889,6

2225

5 years

             

Per Mt

   
             

(NLG)

   

Jamin B

Tins - 90 packs of 112g

     

7/11/96

3190

1109

 
 

Tins - 10kg in rows

         

2840

987

 

Jamin D

Tins - 90 packs of 112g

       

3240

1126

 
 

Tins - 10kg in rows

         

2890

1004

 
             

(FF)

   

Nutriset

   

11g

   

15/11/96

10650

1230

 

BP-5

Each unit of BP-5 (500g net) contains 18 tablets (28g each) packed in 9 bars of greaseproof paper. The 9 bars are packed under vacuum in air- and waterotight alu-foil. The bag is protected by a water repellent cardboard box.

Jamin

Export refund indication of NLG 0.08 per kg if exported outside the EC. Packaging; Watertight tins of 10kg arranged in rows. Also watertight tins of 10kg arranged in 90 packages of 112g.

Nutriset

Packaging: 370 bag? in cartons of 24 bags

 

Exchange rates:

(13/12/96)

             
 

NOK

10,739

             
 

NLG

2,8773

             
 

FF

8,6581

             

Comparison of nutritional composition

Comparison of nutritional composition

                                       
 

Kcal

Protein

Fat

Carbohydrate

Vit A

B1

B2

B6

B12

D

Pantothenic acid

Biotin

Choline

E

Niacin

Folate

C

K

Na

Ca

P

Fe

J

Zn

   

g

g

g

IU

mcg

mcg

mcg

mcg

IU

mcg

mcg

mcg

 

mg

mcg

 

mg

mg

mg

mg

mg

mcg

mg

BP-5

458

15

17

 

1567

520

520

870

1,3

172

**

63

 

4

6,5

130

40

250

 

600

600

10

 

10

Jamin B

460

8,2

17,1

64,7

2528

808

1103

1030

1,6

186

       

0,83

203

0

83

233

569

510

16

137

 

Jamin D

455

10

16,9

63

2559
mcg

854

1118

1086

1,6

186
mcg

57,4

3

9,2

1

0,795

203

48

155

242

589

533

17

160

82

Nutriset

442

14

18,1

65

400

700

400

400

1

10

10000

   

6

10

40

 

700

 

400

400

18

 

15

** Ca-D-Pantothenate = 2.2 mg